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京师经管名家讲坛56期——On Measuring Social Tension
发布日期: 2017-03-28  浏览次数:

主    题:On Measuring Social Tension
时    间:2017年3月30日(周四)14:00-16:00
地    点:后主楼1620
主讲人:Nanak Kakwani 新南威尔士大学教授
主持人:李实 北京师范大学经济与工商管理学院教授

主讲人简介:

Nanak Kakwani was Professor of Economics for 30 years at the University of New South Wales in Sydney, Australia, and until 2006 was Principal Researcher and Director at United Nations Development Programme’s International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth in Brazil. He was an elected fellow of the Australian Research Committee of Social Science, and has been awarded the Mahalanobis gold medal for outstanding contribution in quantitative economics. He has published over 100 articles in international journals, as well as four books.

课程内容:
Different types of social tensions can lead to social unrest. Inequality and poverty, for instance, could cause social tension given temporal fluctuations in living standards including both systemic and idiosyncratic sources of risk. Social tensions may also arise from immobility among social groups, polarization, and issues relating to middle class. This paper provides a common methodology to model different sources of social tensions.

Social tension has many dimensions shaped by economic, social, and political factors. Some of these dimensions are not quantifiable. This paper deals with dimensions of social tension that can be quantified using available data from household surveys. The following aspects of social tension will be considered in the chapter: (i) high inequality, (ii) existence of poverty, (iii) shrinking middle class and increased polarization, (iv) growth volatility, and (v) social immobility.

Measuring each of these dimensions will require normative judgments, which become explicit using a social welfare function. A social welfare function is primarily used to identify policies that work and those that do not. From any public policy perspective, various policies affect individuals differently; some lose while others gain. Hence, it is inevitable to make some form of normative judgments in the assessment of policies using social welfare functions. Social welfare functions help specify judgments on the weights rendered to different individuals.

This paper aims to derive social welfare functions that explicitly incorporate judgments about various types of social tension. Such social welfare functions provide the basis for the measurement of social tension. These social welfare functions are applied in Brazil’s case, with an empirical analysis of levels and trends of various types of social tension in the country from 1992 to 2012 using data from a national household survey called the Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílio (PNAD).

References:
Nanak Kakwani and Hyun Son (2016), “On Measuring Social Tension” Chapter 3 in Social welfare Functions and Development : Measurement and Policy Applications, Palgrave Macmillan
 

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